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currency: Somoni (TJS)
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Tajikistan profile
landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast;

highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
Tajikistan history
The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. Tajikistan endured several domestic security incidents in 2010-12, including a mass prison-break from a Dushanbe detention facility, the country's first suicide car bombing in Khujand, and armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community since the beginning of the NATO intervention in Afghanistan has brought increased economic and security assistance, which could create jobs and strengthen stability in the long term. Tajikistan joined NATO's Partnership for Peace in 2002, and became a member of the World Trade Organization in March 2013.
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Conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan

Conventional short form: Tajikistan

Local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston

Local short form: Tojikiston

Formerly known as: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
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Tajikistan's capital city is Dushanbe
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Tajikistan Constitution:

6 November 1994
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Tajikistan population growth rate: 1.823%
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Tajikistan highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni (Pik Imeni Ismail Samani) 7,495 m
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Tajikistan lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
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About 7% of Tajikistan's land is arable.
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Tajikistan birth rate is 26 births/1,000 population
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Tajikistan infant mortality rate is 37 deaths/1,000 live births
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Tajikistan fertility rate is 2.8 children born/woman
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Tajikistan climate:

midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters;

semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
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Top 10 cities of Tajikistan with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Dushanbe: 679,400
2. Khujand: 155,900
3. Kulob: 93,900
4. Qurghonteppa: 71,000
5. Istaravshan: 60,200
6. Vahdat: 49,100
7. Konibodom: 47,100
8. Tursunzoda: 44,200
9. Isfara: 40,600
10. Panjakent: 35,900
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Tajikistan ethnic groups:

Tajik - 79.9%
Uzbek - 15.3%
Russian - 1.1%
Kyrgyz - 1.1%
other - 2.6%
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Tajikistan Exports:

vegetable oil
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Tajikistan Imports:

petroleum products
aluminum oxide
machinery and equipment
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bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; members serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members elected through constituencies, 22 members elected through party selection; members serve five-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat)
1. Khatlon (Qurghonteppa)
2. Sughd (Khujand)

1 autonomous province (viloyati mukhtor):
Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh)

1 capital region (viloyati poytakht): Dushanbe

and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration:
Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri,
Political parties and leaders:
Agrarian Party of Tajikistan (APT) - Amir QARAQULOV

Communist Party of Tajikistan (CPT) - Shodi SHABDOLOV

Islamic Revival Party of Tajikistan (IRPT) - Muhiddin KABIRI

Party of Economic Reform (PER) - Olimjon BOBOEV

People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan (PDPT) - Emomali RAHMON

Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan (SDPT) - Rahmatullo ZOYIROV